Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Section 4


Citation references for this TGM Section denoted with an "a", "b", "c", etc… after the year of publication may not appear in sequence as these refer to the order placed in the Master References List for the entire TGM.

40 CFR 761.  Code of Federal Regulations, Environmental Protection Agency.  Title 40, Part 761, Protection of Environment.  Website URL:  August 25, 2016

ADEC, 2009.  Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. Division of Spill Prevention and Response.  Contaminated Sites Program. Guidance on Multi-Increment Soil Sampling.  Website URL:  March 2009.

ASTM, 2003.  American Society for Testing and Materials.  Standard Guide for Laboratory Subsampling of Media Related to Waste Management Activities: D6323-98(2003). West Conshohokken, PA: ASTM International.  Website URL: 

Brewer et al., 2016.  Brewer, R., Peard, J. and M. Heskett.  A critical review of discrete soil sampling methods. Soil and Sediment Contamination (pending; manuscripts under review).  June 2016

CalEPA, 2004b.  California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control.  Guidance on the Implementation of EPA Method SW-846 5035.  November 2004.

Cutler et al., 2006.  Cutler, W.G., N. Hue, M.E. Ortiz-Escobar, and T. Martin.  Approaches to Reduce Bioaccessible Arsenic in Hawai'i Soils: In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds: Monterey, California: May 2006. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press.  Local Copy (20kb). 

Cutler, W.G. 2011.  Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of the Island of Hawaii. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.  Website URL:  Local Copy (3.1mb). 

ERM, 2008. 

Gy, Pierre, 1998.  Sampling for Analytical Purposes. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. West Sussex. England.  Website URL: 

HDOH, 2011i.  Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Use of Decision Unit and Multi-increment Soil Sample Investigation Approaches to Characterize A Subsurface Solvent Plume.  Local Copy (4.2mb).  March 2011.

HDOH, 2015.  Hawai´i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Small-Scale Variability of Discrete Soil Sample Data, Part 1: Field Investigation of Discrete Sample Variability.  Website URL:  June 2015.

HDOH, 2015b.  Hawai´i Department of Health, Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Small-Scale Variability of Discrete Soil Sample Data, Part 2: Causes and Implications for Use in Environmental Investigations.  Website URL:  June 2015.

HDOH, 2016.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Screening for Environmental Concerns at Sites with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater.  Website URL:  Summer 2016 (and updates).

HDOH, 2017d.  Hawai’i Department of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response.  Guidance for Soil Stockpile Characterization and Evaluation of Imported and Exported Fill Material.  Website URL:  Local Copy (3.5mb).  October 8, 2017.

ITRC, 2012.  Interstate Technology Regulatory Council.  Incremental Sampling Methodology. ISM-1.  Website URL:  February 2012.

Jenkins, T., et al., 2005.  Representative Sampling for Energetic Compounds at Military Training Range: Environmental Forensics, Volume 6, pp. 45-55.  Website URL: 

MADEP, 2002.  Characterizing Risks Posed by Petroleum Contaminated Sites: Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Policy #WSC-02-411.  Website URL:  Local Copy (425kb).  October 2002.

Minnitt et al., 2007  Minnitt, R.C.A., Rice, P.M. and C. Spangenberg.  Part 1: Understanding the components of the fundamental sampling error: a key to good sampling practice: The Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 107.  August 2007.

Pitard, F.F., 1993.  Pierre Gy's Sampling Theory and Sampling Practice, 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.  Website URL: 

Pitard, F.F., 2005.  Sampling and Blending Conference Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia.  Sampling Correctness - A Comprehensive Guideline.  May 9-12, 2005.

Pitard, F.F., 2009.  Fourth World Conference on Sampling & Blending, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.  Theoretical, practical and economic difficulties in sampling for trace constituents.  2009.

Ramsey, C. and A. Hewitt, 2005.  A Methodology for Assessing Sample Representativeness, Environmental Forensics 6:71-75.  Website URL: 

SBRC, 1999.  Standard Operating Procedure, In Vitro Method for Determination of Lead and Arsenic Bioavailability: Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium, Document 8601102.001 0601 1099 RN01 (contact Michael Ruby, Exponent, Boulder, Colorado or Dr. John Drexler, University of Colorado-Boulder, Department of Geological Sciences) 

TNRCC, 2002.  Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission.  Guidance on the Use of EPA Method SW-846 5035.  June 2002.

US Navy, 2015.  U.S. Navy Environmental Restoration Program, NAVFAC Pacific: Department of the Navy Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific.  Project Procedures Manual.  May 2015.

USEPA, 1985.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances, Washington DC.  Verification of PCB Spill Cleanup by Sampling and Analysis, EPA-560/5-85·026.  August 1985.

USEPA, 1986.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances, Washington DC.  Field Manual for Grid Sampling of PCB Spill Sites to Verify Cleanups, EPA-560/5-86·017.  May 1986.

USEPA, 1987.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office ofEmergency and Remedial Response, Washington DC.  Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities, EPA/540/G-87/003.  March 1987.

USEPA, 1989.  Criteria for Identifying Areas of Vulnerable Hydrogeology Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Appendix B - Ground-Water Flow Net/Flow Line Construction and Analysis.  Website URL:  Local Copy (20kb).  Interim Final 1989.

USEPA, 1989b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.  Methods of Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards, Volume 1: Soils and Solid Media, EPA 230/02-89-042. (see Section 7.4 and Table 7.1 especially).  Website URL:  Local Copy (4.5mb).  February 1989.

USEPA, 1990.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Washington DC.  A Rationale for the Assessment of Errors in the Sampling of Soils, EPA/800/4-90/013.  May 1990.

USEPA, 1992b.  Supplemental Guidance to RAGS: Calculating the Concentration Term. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. OSWER Publication 9258.7-081. Washington D.C.  Local Copy (939kb).  May 1992.

USEPA, 1998h.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Code of Federal Regulations.  CFR Part 761.61, PCB Remediation Waste. 

USEPA, 1999c.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Sciences Division.  Correct Sampling Using the Theories of Pierre Gy. Las Vegas, NV.  Local Copy (141kb).  March 1999.

USEPA, 2002f.  Guidance on Choosing a Sampling Design for Environmental Data Collection (for Use in Developing a Quality Assurance Project Plan). EPA QA/G-5S. Office of Environmental Information. EPA/240/R-02/005.  Local Copy (1.0mb).  December 2002.

USEPA, 2002h.  Method 5035A. Closed-System Purge-and-Trap and Extraction for Volatile Organics in Soil and Waste Samples, Draft Revision 1.  July 2002.

USEPA, 2003b.  Guidance for Obtaining Representative Laboratory Analytical Subsamples from Particulate Laboratory Samples, EPA/600/R-03/027.  Website URL:  Local Copy (2.9mb).  November 2003.

USEPA, 2003c.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division.  Sample Holding Time Reevaluation, EPA/600/R-05/124.  Website URL:  October 2003.

USEPA, 2004b.  How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites - A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers. EPA 510-R-04-002.  Local Copy (20kb).  May 2004.

USEPA, 2006b.  United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Information.  Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process. EPA QA/G-4, EPA/240/B-06/001.  Local Copy (1.7mb).  February 2006.

USEPA, 2006d.  Nitroaromatics, Nitramines, and Nitrate Esters by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Revison 2, SW846 Methods, Method 8330B.  Local Copy (285kb).  October 2006.

USEPA, 2006g.  Office of Environmental Information, Washington, DC.  Data Quality Assessment: Statistical Methods for Practitioners, EPA QA/G-9S. EPA/240/B-06/003. 

USEPA, 2011d.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, EPA/600/R-090/052F.  Exposure Factors Handbook.  Website URL:  September 2011.

USEPA, 2013b.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Office of Research and Development.  ProUCL Version 5.0.00 User Guide, Statistical Software for Environmental Applications for Data Sets with and without Nondetect Observations, EPA/600/R-07/041.  September 2013.

USEPA, 2015.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratories.  Screening Levels for Chemical Contaminants.  November 2015.

USGS, 2014.  U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.  Geochemical and Mineralogical Maps for Soils of the Conterminous United States, Open-File Report 2014–1082. 

USGS, 2016.  U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.  Perchlorate and Selected Metals in Water and Soil within Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota, 2011–15. Reston, VA. Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5030. 

USNLM, 2016.  National Center for Biotechnology Information.  Phenylmercuric Acetate. U.S. National Library of Medicine. PubChem Open Chemistry Database.  (Accessed June 2, 2016)