Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Section 6
CONTENTS

SECTION 6 CONTENTS

Acronyms and Abbreviations
 
6.0 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling Guidance
 
6.1 Groundwater Monitoring Well Placement
  6.1.1 Initial Groundwater Investigation Phase
  6.1.2 Subsequent Investigation Phases
 
6.2 Monitoring Well Installation and Abandonment
  6.2.1 Permanent Monitoring Wells
    6.2.1.1 Well Casing
    6.2.1.2 Filter Pack
    6.2.1.3 Annular Seal
    6.2.1.4 Well Head Protection
    6.2.1.5 Well Installation Log
    6.2.1.6 Well Survey
    6.2.1.7 Well Development
    6.2.1.8 Well Development Log
    6.2.1.9 Timeline for Drilling, Well Installation, Development, and Sampling
  6.2.2 Temporary Monitoring Wells
  6.2.3 Other Wells
    6.2.3.1 Micro Wells
    6.2.3.2 Production/ Potable Well Sampling
  6.2.4 Special Considerations for Monitoring Wells
    6.2.4.1 Monitoring Wells with Permanent Downhole Equipment
    6.2.4.2 Monitoring Wells at Sites with LNAPL Plumes
    6.2.4.3 Monitoring Wells at Sites with DNAPL Plumes
    6.2.4.4 Monitoring Wells in Fractured Bedrock
    6.2.4.5 Monitoring Wells in Confined Aquifers
  6.2.5 Monitoring Well Abandonment
    6.2.5.1 Well Abandonment Planning
    6.2.5.2 Abandonment Procedures
    6.2.5.3 Grouting
    6.2.5.4 Grout Composition
    6.2.5.5 Well Abandonment Reporting
 
6.3 Groundwater Gauging
  6.3.1 Monitoring Well Equilibration
  6.3.2 Depth-to-Water Measurement
  6.3.3 Total Well Depth
  6.3.4 Free Product Measurement
  6.3.5 Well Gauging Log
  6.3.6 Tidal Effects
    6.3.6.1 Tidal Study
    6.3.6.2 Gauging at Tidally Influenced Sites
  6.3.7 Seasonal Effects
  6.3.8 Temporal Variations
  6.3.9 Determination of Vertical Hydraulic Gradient and Flow Direction
 
6.4 Purging
  6.4.1 Low-Flow Approach
  6.4.2 Well Volume Approach
  6.4.3 Purging Low Permeability Formations
  6.4.4 Well Purging Log
 
6.5 Groundwater Sample Collection Methods
  6.5.1 Low-Flow Sampling
  6.5.2 Positive Displacement Pumps
  6.5.3 Submersible Pumps
  6.5.4 Bailer Sampling
  6.5.5 Peristaltic Pump Sampling
  6.5.6 Others
  6.5.7 Order of Groundwater Sampling
 
6.6 Filtration of Groundwater Samples
  6.6.1 Dissolved Metals versus Total Metals
  6.6.2 Filtering Procedures
 
6.7 Aquifer Data Collection Methods
  6.7.1 Slug Tests
    6.7.1.1 Slug Tests in Stratified Aquifers
  6.7.2 Pumping Tests
    6.7.2.1 Single Well Pumping Tests
    6.7.2.2 Multi-Well Pumping Tests
 
6.8 Groundwater Modeling
  6.8.1 Gradient and Flow Direction Determination
  6.8.2 Velocity, Transmissivity, Calculations
  6.8.3 Computer Models
 
6.9 Surface Water Sample Collection Methods
  6.9.1 Sampling Flowing and Still Surface Waters
    6.9.1.1 Isokinetic Samplers
    6.9.1.2 Non-Isokinetic Samplers
  6.9.2 Composite Sampling
  6.9.3 Grab Sampling
  6.9.4 Point Sampling
  6.9.5 Lake/Standing Water Sampling
  6.9.6 Estuarine Marine Sampling
  6.9.7 Trace Element Sampling
  6.9.8 Filtration
 
6.10 Investigation Derived Waste
 
References
 
Figures
  6-1 Diagram of a Typical Groundwater Monitoring Well
  6-2 Portion of PVC Well Screen and Flush Threaded Bottom Cap
  6-3 Hollow Stem Auger with PVC Well Casing
  6-4 Installation of Well Head Protection
  6-5 Traffic Rated Flush Mounted Well Head Box
  6-6 Above Ground Well Head Box with Steel Bollard Guards
  6-7 Example Monitoring Well Installation Log
  6-8 Example Well Development Log
  6-9 Diagram of Pre-Pack Monitoring Well Assembly
  6-10 Oil-water Interface Meter
  6-11 Example Groundwater Sampling Log
  6-12 Low-flow bladder pump within a monitoring well
  6-13 Detail of Field Setup for Purging and Sampling Well
  6-14 Field Setup for Purging and Sampling Well
  6-15 Bailers for Purging and Groundwater Sampling
  6-16 Peristaltic Pump Head
  6-17 In-line 0.45 Micron Filter
  6-18 Isokinetic Sampler Constructed of Teflon
  6-19 Niskin Bottle Sampler
  6-20 VOC sampler
  6-21 Churn Splitters
 
Tables
  6-1 Test Methods for water Quality Parameters
  6-2 Potential for Representative Analytical Results for commonly Utilized Groundwater Sampling Methods for Common Contaminants of Potential Concern